Fashion in the Age of Datini

Some notes on one of my scholarly hobbies.

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Men (and probably some women, as astridaschaeffer argues) wore linen or hemp shorts for modesty and sanitation (undyed linen and hemp were the only fabrics which could be easily washed in hot soapy water). These are commonly worn by men in paintings and literature, and occasionally show up in inventories and descriptions of merchandise produced by different guilds: rich men died owning up to six pairs for their own use (Pisetzky vol. 2 pp. 22, 23, Brandi p. 133, Datini inventory). They were held up by a belt in a casing (which could also support the hose), a drawstring, or later by knotting them closed at the hip like a modern bikini bottom. Texts describe the ideal breeches as white linen, and most artwork supports this, but a few breeches in 15th century paintings are dark blue or black instead. There are some articles on the subject at

During the 14th century these were called breeches in English, mutande in Italian, and braes in French: the ‘proper’ Latin name was braccae.

To the best of my knowledge, no breeches survive from the fourteenth century, and artwork rarely shows seams except at the sides of the legs. Styles in artwork are quite diverse, and presumably many wearers (and makers) had their favourite styles. A modern pattern for the style in the following paintings is available in Singman and Maclean’s Daily Life in Chaucer’s England.

A man in a breech (Fr. braes, underpants/panties) in a 14th century fresco from the left transept of Santa Anastasia, Verona. I suspect that it was painted after 1360 given the shape of his chest and style of his hair and beard.

Detail of the breeches worn by St. Sebastian in the Hours of Catherine of Cleves (Utrecht, circa 1440; Morgan Library, New York, MS M.917/945, pp. 252/3

Robert Macpherson is working on a typology of breeches in art from the 13th century to the beginning of the 16th: type I (“Maciejowski”), type II, type III, and type V are most relevant for trecento Italy. A series of reconstructions are posted on a discussion forum.

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A hunter stripped to his shirt and breeches in Bibliotheque Nationale du France, Nouvelle Acquisition Latin 1673 Tacuinum Sanitatis fol. 91v

A painting of the crucifixion with a blindfolded prisoner

Crucifixion (c. 1410) by the Meiser der St. Lambrechter Krüzigungsaltäre in Schloss Egenberg, Graz. The guard holds a sheathed sword in hand, the blindfolded prisoner is stripped to his shirt.

The shirt (also known as smock, Latin camisa, Italian camicia, French chemise, or German Hemd) was a linen undergarment pulled over the head, normally with long sleeves. Men’s shirts usually range from just long enough to cover the top of the breeches to just above the knees, women’s tend to be longer. Men’s often have slits at the side below the hips, women’s usually get wider below this point to allow free movement without exposing any skin. There are no applied cuffs and decoration such as embroidery or gathering was very rare. Decent people only appeared in their shirts in public when they were doing hot, dirty work like stoking ovens or reaping grain.

Because linen decays in wet contexts, and was recycled for all kinds of purposes, very few shirts survive before the 17th century. The short shirt of Rodrigo Ximenez de Rada (d. 1247), the shirt of St. Louis (d. 1270), a 14th century shirt from Egypt (similar in cut to the coat of Bishop Timotheos of Ibrîm (after 1372)), and the 15th century fragments from Lengberg, Austria are the closest in space and time to Datini’s world (the ‘shirt in which St. Thomas Becket was martyred’ in the care of the Diocese of Arras never seems to have been published). The oldest instructions to make a shirt appear in the late 18th century in books like Garsault’s L’Art de la Lingere (1771) or Zimmermann’s Die junge Haushälterinn: ein Buch für Mütter und Töchter (1792). In account books, shirts usually just appear as a number of yards or ells of linen and a tiny fee for the cutting and sewing; lists of clothing rarely describe them in detail.

Note that most of the diagrams of the St. Louis shirt online are based on examining it through a glass case, and when Tina Anderlini was allowed to take it down and measure it, she found that it was different than it appeared. So be careful with information about this garment from Burnham’s Cut my Cote or Heather Rose Jones’ “Another Look at St. Louis’ Shirt” (although they are both worth reading!)

The opening for the head varies but usually has the same shape as the garments it is worn with. The Goodman of Paris explains that a decent woman is careful not to expose underlayers at the collar of her coat. In the 15th century, as doublets acquire standing collars, shirts sometimes acquire them too.

Karen Larsdatter Men’s Shirts
Karen Larsdatter Women’s Smocks
Le Ménagier de Paris: Paola Fabbri says this was the most helpful text for her, even though it is from 1393 and she focuses on the 1400s
Polycrates Hanged Getty M. 63
Anna Attiliani, Camisa Supportiva (2014)
Deventer Burgerscap, About Medieval Bra(shirt)s and Other Underwear and “Making My Bra Shirt”

… more to come …

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Another complicated topic! Fourteenth-century hosen were long stockings, usually of woven cloth cut on the bias and sewed up the back of the leg, which usually had a built-in sole of fabric or leather (leather soles are painted in the Missale ad Usum Fratrum Minorum and mentioned in inventories eg. “i payre of Blake hosyn vampayed wth lether” “Inventory of Effects belonging to Sir John Fastolfe” p. 253 or the calze solate in Brandi, Abbigliamento a Rimini, pp. 64-67). They were cut long enough to hide the shirt and breeches with the shortest upper garment which they might be worn with, and tight enough to create as few wrinkles as possible. They could be laced to the belt or drawstring of the breeches (Hours of Catherine of Cleves), or to a separate belt, or to an overgarment which fit tightly in the belly (Charles du Blois garment in Lyon). These laces were designed to be hidden, not visible on the surface of the outer garment as in some later fashions. The problem is that no surviving hosen were designed to be worn with the mid-thigh-to-crotch-length upper garments which were fashionable among wealthy and warlike men, and that by definition the upper parts of these hosen were hidden. There is a handy summary of the different options and the earliest evidence for each in a blog post by Charlotte J, “Split and Joined Hose in the Late 14th Century.”

Hosen with multiple points on each leg were often unlaced at the back during vigorous movement. A number of paintings show a flap hanging down the back of each leg and the breeches exposed in this situation (Fior di Battaglia, Missale ad Usum Fratrum Minorum, sketches by Pisanello such as his Hanged Men and a sketch men-at-arms practicing). It was also common to unlace all the points and roll the hosen down to calf level, especially if the upper garment was long enough to avoid showing the breeches.

Sometimes the upper parts of hosen were lined with linen, which was sometimes cut on the bias like the hosen. (d’Arcq Nouveau recueil de comptes de l’argenterie p. 283/year 1386: costs of 11 pairs of scarlet hose include “toilles à garnir,” “A Wardrobe Account of 16–17 Richard II, 1393–4,” the flagellation of Christ by Luis Borrassa in the Museo de Goya in Zaragoza, How a Man Shall be Armed, 15th century paintings like the San Rocco by the Master of Ambrogio Sarceni). To the best of my knowledge, none of these linen linings survives.

English-speaking people usually get their information on the cut and fabric of 14th century hosen from Textiles and Clothing 1150-1450 and Woven Into the Earth/Norse Garments Reconstructed. Singman and McLean and Thursfield have modern advice for cutting and making them up. That said, hosen of kersey are mentioned in “A Wardrobe Account of 16–17 Richard II, 1393–4” and in the accounts of Thomas of Lancaster c. 1418-1421 (Woolgar, Household Accounts, p. 634) and in the 16th century kersey was a lightweight 2:2 twill woven especially for hosen, while the hosen fragments from 14th century London are of a plain weave. So the ‘working class’ hosen from London and Greenland may not tell the whole story.

… pictures to come …
The Dispute Between a Good Man and the Devil lines 273-276 complaining about shortskirts with split hosen

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A complicated topic which I want to write more about! In a fourteenth-century context, I understand a doublet as a garment for the upper body which:

– Is worn over the shirt and under the coat, gown, or cloak.
– Is very strongly associated with wealthy young men or with soldiers.
– Is lined (doublé in French).
– Is most often covered with textiles made from linen, cotton, or silk (and not so often with wool or worsted).
– Is split from hem to collar at the front and fastened with laces or buttons. The opening up the front is very prominent with large buttons or spiral lacing.
– Has sleeves reaching to the wrist (and sometimes further) which fit closely from shoulder to wrist. The opening in the sleeves is much less prominent and often involves many tiny buttons reaching up to roughly the elbow.
– Is relatively short (somewhere between the crotch and the middle of the thigh)
– Fits very tightly in the hips and belly and creates a fashionable deep, rounded shape in the breast. There are often short slits in the bottom of the side seams for mobility.
– Often supports the hosen (and perhaps also the cuisses)
– Is stuffed with unspun silk or cotton, fabric scraps, multiple layers of linen, or a combination of these

Very similar garments can be called coats, jupons, aketons, gambesons, or pourpoints. I agree with Robert MacPherson that its wise to think about function, and that the tight fit of a doublet in the sleeves and belly suit it to particular functions which not all coats, aketons, etc. could fill. I am told that Italians tended to use either farsetto (Crabb, Merchant of Prato’s Wife) or words in the jupe or chope family such as zuparello for these garments (Mazzaoui, p. 99), but have not had the opportunity to explore clothing in texts from Italy.

The most fashionable shape of doublet from 1360-1410 is usually described as globulose-breasted, with a high narrow waist, rounded back and deep, wide chest. If you stare at artwork and focus on the transition between chest and belly, the presence or absence of a collar, and the length of the doublet you will notice a variety of subtypes.

Detail from a fresco in the Dominikanerkirche, Bolzen/Bolzano. Note the long doublet with a buttoned front and ‘bell-mouthed’ sleeves hanging over his hands, not to mention his fashionable open-topped shoes. I would guestimate the clothing in the rest of the fresco as from circa 1380-1400.

… Other paintings by Altichiero and Jacopo Avanzi …
… BNF Latin 757 Missale ad Usum Fratrum Minorum folio 286v (the wardrobe malfunction)
… Guiron le Courtoise, Queste del’ Saint Graal, …

More pictures to follow!

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A gown can be defined as a sleeved upper garment which continually widens from the shoulders to the hem. Most gowns fit to the mid calf and consumed three yards or more of broadcloth, but a few were as short as the buttocks (Italian gonella, French gonelle). The long gowns were the most respectable outer garments for most classes of men. A cloak could be added as an extra layer in cold or wet weather.

Fior de Battaglia
– Lengberg Badehaus
– Silk one in Prague
– watch gown in the 15th century
– …
Merchant of Prato’s Wife and

Gowns were normally of fulled cloth or of silk and often had a lining, sometimes a fur lining.

Later gowns were often cut from neck to hem. In Datini’s lifetime, most have a small invisible opening at the neck, probably closed with hooks and eyes or buttons.

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Short Pleated Cloaks

Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the "Pharsalia" painted by Niccolò da Bologia in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana MS 691 folio 86r).  Image courtesy of the Web Gallery of Art

Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the “Pharsalia” painted by Niccolò da Bologia in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana MS 691 folio 86r). Image courtesy of the Web Gallery of Art

Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the Crucifixion by Altichiero, Basilica di Sant'Antonio, Padua (c. 1376-1379).  Ask me offline for my source.

Short pleated cloak worn by a soldier in the Crucifixion by Altichiero, Basilica di Sant’Antonio, Padua (c. 1376-1379). Ask me offline for my source.

Detail from a fresco by Altichiero in Padua in the 1370s or 1380s

Detail from a fresco by Altichiero in Padua in the 1370s or 1380s

Morgan MS. G.54 Der Wälsche Gast folio 6r (painted in Trier circa 1380) from see also

Morgan MS. G.54 Der Wälsche Gast folio 6r (painted in Trier circa 1380) from see also The openwork decoration on the uppers seems to be typically German.

Detail of Mellini, "Altichiero e Jacopo Avanzi" (1965) plate 93, Decollazione di S. Giacomo e Josia, Padova, Basilica del Santo, cappella di S. Giacomo

Detail of Mellini, “Altichiero e Jacopo Avanzi” (1965) plate 93, Decollazione di S. Giacomo e Josia, Padova, Basilica del Santo, cappella di S. Giacomo

BNF Latin 757 folio 355r (painted in Milan, circa 1385-1390, school of Giovanni di Benedetto da Como)

BNF Latin 757 folio 355r (painted in Milan, circa 1385-1390, school of Giovanni di Benedetto da Como)

A man dressed in gray with a pointed beard approaches a group of enthroned bishops

A short pleated cloak in the Way of Salvation painted by Andrea da Firenze (fl. 1343-1377)

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Hoods were a popular style of male headdress although not as dominant as in colder lands with less exposure to fashions from outside the area dominated by French culture. Several of the pictures under Short Pleated Cloaks show examples.

The hood with a long liripipe worn by a groom in BNF Français 343 folio 1r (painted in Milan in the 1380s). Cropped from a photo at or

A short pleated cloak and liripipe hood in the illustration for hops in a Taciunum Sanitatis (BNF NAL 1673 folio 29v).

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Most shoes seem to have gently pointed tips, without a long ‘pike’ in the ‘poulaine’ or ‘cracow’ style. Soled hosen seem very popular, at least among rich men. The method and place of fastening is not usually visible. The ankle opening seems to be at a similar place to modern men’s dress shoes, making them ‘shoes’ or low ‘ankle boots’ in the language of the Museum of London. Openwork decoration on the uppers seems to have been fashionable for men, especially north of the Alps.

Black is a very popular colour in art. I don’t know of any documentary evidence for the colour of shoes in Italy. It is possible that shoes were not commonly made in bulk and shipped long distances, so do not appear in merchants’ records. In 1480 Edward IV of England ordered shoes and boots of “black leather” and “tawney Spanish leather” (Shoes and Pattens p. 120) and an English Arthurian romance composed around 1410 mentions “A man… As blak As Ony Scho.” The Treatise of the Points of Worship in Arms mentions “A payre of shoen of red Lether thynne laced & fretted underneth wt whippecorde & persed, And above withinne Lyned wt Lynnen cloth three fyngers in brede double & byesse from the too an yncle above ye wriste.”

Pattens (wooden overshoes) appear on shelves next to beds in the Tacuinum Sanitatis in Paris but I do not know of other evidence for clogs and pattens in Italy. Olaf Goubitz gives the impression that few finds of shoes from Italy have been published, and says that clogs and pattens are rare archaeologically (p. 131), whether because they were less common, or because old clogs made good firewood. One researcher claims that a 14th century Italian name for these objects is pianelle (Meek, “Sumptuary Legislation in Lucca,” p. 212).

Further Reading:

  • Francis Grew and Margarethe de Neergaard, Shoes and Pattens. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London 2. New edition. Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001. ISBN-13 978-1-84383-238-6
  • Olaf Goubitz, Stepping Through Time: Archaeological Footwear from Prehistoric Times until 1800 (Stitchtig Promotie Archeologie: n.p., 2001) ISBN-13 978-90-8932-004-9
  • Quita Mould, Ian Carlisle, and Esther Cameron, Leather and Leatherworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 16 Craft, Industry, and Everyday Life. York Archaeological Trust: Walmgate, York, 2003.
  • Quita Mould, “The Medieval Leather,” in C. Howard-Davis, The Carlisle Millennium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998-2001, Volume 2: The Finds. (Oxford Archaeology North: Lancaster, 2009) pp. 841-858. ISBN 9780904220575.
  • Marquita Volken, Archaeological Footwear: Development of Shoe Patterns and Styles from Prehistory til the 1600’s (SPA Uitgevers, 2014) ISBN-13 978-9089321176
  • Marquita Volken, “Arming Shoes of the Fifteenth Century,” Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5.2 (December 2017) pp. 25-45

Examples of shoed feet on the Pistoia Altarpiece. Photo courtesy of Hugh McDonald

Shoes worn by soldiers in a manuscript painted by Niccolò da Bologna in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana, MS Triv. 691 folio 119r). Courtesy of manus online

Detail of shoes worn by soldiers in a manuscript painted by Niccolò da Bologna in 1373 (Bib. Trivulziana, MS Triv. 691 folio 119r). These have openwork decoration which may have been fashionable north of the Alps at this time (eg. Photo courtesy of Web Gallery of Art

Shoes of a male donor in a late 14th century fresco in S. Giorgetto, Verona. Photo by Sean Manning, April 2017.

Shoes worn under greaves in BNF Latin 757 folio 76r. Photo courtesy of

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Bar mounts, D-shaped buckles, and various round mounts are all common archaeological finds. See figure 12 of Willemsen, ‘Man is a sack of muck girded with silver’ for a belt like the old soldier’s.

The belt of Lorenzo Acciaiuoli with a pentagonal buckle and heavy strap end.

The belt of Guiron le Courtoise in BNF Nouvelle acquisition française 5243

Another belt with bar mounts in Ms. Triv. 691 fol. 119r (Lucan de Bello Civile). You can find similar belts in the Chroniques de France in the British Library (BL Royal 20 C VII).

Belts fall into two general categories, a kind with a long dangling tail which was usually wrapped around the belt and tucked behind itself, and a kind with no visible tail worn around the hips. They could be of tanned leather, woven silk, or interlinked metal plaques, and decorated in many different ways.

To learn about belts and their metal fittings (mounts), see Egan and Prirchard, Dress Accessories, Willemsen ‘Man is a Sack of Muck Girdled with Silver’, Schnack, Lederfunde aus Schleswig, and databases of metal-detector finds like the Portable Antiquities Scheme. Leather belts and pewter or copper-alloy mounts survive well.

The heavy belts of silver or gilt plaques often show up in inventories, merchants’ records, and rhetoric about excess: there is some information in Stuard, Gilding the Market.

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The purse of a poor infantryman (armed only with a round shield and long baselard) in a painting by Altichiero in Padua in the 1370s. It probably has two loops enclosing the belt and a cover tied by two pairs of laces. Ask me offline for my source.

An example of a cloth purse with a circular frame. L. Paul Getty Museum, MS. Ludwig XV 13 (Fior di Battaglia, painted circa 1410), folio 6r, courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

A very rare ballock pouch in Italian art of this period (and an unusually wide, deep pouch in general). I suspect that he is supposed to be dressed alla tedesca. L. Paul Getty Museum, MS. Ludwig XV 13 (Fior di Battaglia, painted circa 1410), folio 6r, courtesy of the Getty’s Open Content Program.

… more pictures to follow …

People in the trecento hung a variety of cloth or leather bags from their belt to carry small objects, or used them to project objects in storage. Painters usually show no more than one, while a variety of pouches and bags, often rather plain, are found by archaeologists.

Leatherworkers usually rely on Goubitz, “Purses in Pieces” to reconstruct late medieval leather purses. The problem is that this book relies in 15th and 16th century Dutch finds, and purses in trecento Italian art look very different from purses in 15th and 16th century Dutch art. The Dutch enjoyed the bawdy humour of a purse with two large lumps worn over the crotch (and often supporting a long, hard, stiff dagger with a phallic hilt) but Italians usually cut their purses and carved their hilts differently and usually wore both at the hip. I would therefore recommend caution in using this as a source to understand purses in Italy.

Goubitz also warns that many purses probably combined textiles, tanned leathers, and hides treated in other ways, but that only the tanned leather part has much chance of surviving in the ground.

Karen Larsdatter has a page on Medieval and Renaissance Pouches and Purses, but again its important to remember that fashions were quite different in different parts of Europe. There are some rectangular and round drawstring pouches in Schnack, “Lederfunde aus Schleswig.”

Leather purses often had a variety of pewter, brass, silver, gold, or gilt fittings. Photos of a wide variety are available in Willemsen, Decorative Mounts on Belts and Purses. These fittings are commonly found by metal detectors, so many private collections contain some.

… more to come … other styles of bag and purse …

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Knives (Working)

Knives are very easy to study, since they commonly appear in merchants’ records and paintings of banquets, city life, and saints who were martyred with one. The iron parts also survive well. The Museum of London has a book on Knives and Scabbards (ISBN-13 9780851158051) with several hundred late medieval knives, Holtmann has a dissertation with 1300, Ottaway and Rogers, Craft, Industry, and Everyday Life, pp. 2751-2793 analyze 235 knives from York, and Karen Larsdatter has a page on Cutlery; there are a few knives in Davis, Excavations in Carlisle, Vol. 2 pp. 746-749, some more in the Allen collection, and information on scabbards in Leather and Leatherworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York.

St. Bartholomew with a flaying knife, in a painting by the Maestro della Madonna della Misericordia in the Castelvecchio, Verona (late 14th century). The black grip studded with brass nails is extremely common in late 14th century Italy.

A knife held by a saint in St. Anastasia, Verona

Most knives in this period had a tang the same length, width, and shape as the handle (scale tang) with wooden, horn, or bone scales on both sides. Niko at Neues aus der Gothik has an excellent page on slightly earlier (and Germanic) fashions such as the ‘little plate technique’ of building a handle from many small discs of different materials.

Sets of knives in a single scabbard were very popular for both wear and storage in the kitchen or the workshop. Datini carried them, and a few survive, such as British Museum 1855,1201.118 On the other hands, cases for a knife and a poking tool (Fr. poinson) are hard to find in archaeology from in this period, although a student who died on the road to Paris in 1347 had one (de la Marche “Le Bagage d’un étudiant en 1347” pp. 180-182).

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Knives (Fighting)

Wealthy men and soldiers often wore a fighting knife or dagger (daga, pugnale, coltello). Italian art usually shows the dagger at the right hip (not in front of the crotch) and blades of modest length (not the 12″ or more which was fashionable in the late 15th and early 16th century).

Three families of daggers have well-recognized names today. Baselards have a crossguard above and below the hand, and the guards and tang are all of scale construction. Some Italians today call them pugnali a doppio T but the name basolardi is mentioned in the archivo Datini di Prato and is usually assumed to have meant the same thing as the modern collector’s term baselard. They tend to be big by 14th century standards, with at least 10″( 25 cm) of blade. Sometimes the tips of the guard farthest from the point was bent away from the hand, and sometimes the blade was very long; these long baselards were often worn at the left hip like a sword and had a unique suspension system (Matricula Societatis Fabrorum Civitatis Bononiae, Altichiero, Niccolò da Bologna). Baselards seem to be associated with soldiers and with poorer men, and the grip scales are usually black in art (horn? stained wood?) The membership roll of the society of smiths of Bologna shows cutlers selling baselards with studded hilts next to working knives. Marco Vignola has published a booklet on the basilard in Italy.

Single-rondel daggers have a disc instead of a crossguard and a flared butt or rounded pommel. One survives in the Higgins Collection, Worchester Art Museum, accession number 1999.02.2 (= Worchester Art Museum 2014.443), another is in the Worchester Art Museum 2018.3. The rondel dagger with flat discs above and below the hand seems to have been more popular in the 15th century, although they occasionally appear in English brasses from the 1380s onwards.

Quillion daggers, built like a cruciform sword with a double-edged blade, crossguard inserted through the tang, and pommel inserted onto the tang, are very rare in North Italian art: the only example which comes to mind is the slab of Giacomo Provana (d. 1382) in Torino.

A variety of other daggers were used which do not have a widely-known name today, including a type where both crossguards were curved away from the hand (antennae hilt?) or replaced with round ornaments (Lorenzo Acciaiuoli) and a type with a short, thick crossguard which may be made from soft materials instead of forged from iron and inserted over the tang (St. Sigismund in Verona). Both these styles and the one-disc rondel daggers seem to have been more popular with civilians and the very rich, and artists usually show them with white grips and guards (ivory? bone? pale wood such as yew?)

The irons of several baselards from this period survive in the Castelvecchio, Verona (two basilards, another) and there is one in the Allen collection, W-18. The Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Köln, has a baselard as inventory number R-32, and the Royal Armouries, Leeds, has another baselard as object X.297.

British Museum, museum number 1854,0424.2 has a short iron blade and one rondel made from the same wood as the grip and pommel, while Royal Armouries, Leeds, object number X.601 seems to have a rondel of ferrous and copper alloys, and X.1708 has a grip and two rondels each made up of a separate piece of wood. Quite a few daggers with hilts and guards carved in one piece are in British museums, mostly in the ‘ballock dagger’ style which was popular around the North Sea, such as Royal Armouries, Leeds, X.1744 and X.225. Many of these surviving daggers date long after the period discussed on this page!

The daggers of men-at-arms and civilians are usually of modest length with the blade no more than twice as long as the handle, perhaps 6″ to 8″ (2 palms) long. The blades usually appear narrow and tapered. Because of the short light blades, daggers often hung horizontally, or even with the grip below the point, when they were not supported by the straps of a purse.

Information on scabbards and suspensions can be found under Knives (Eating). Tod Todeschini, a craftsman who specializes in late medieval and early modern cutlery, has a bibliography on his English Cutler website including Luciano Salvatici ed., “Posate, Pugnali et Colteli da Caccia del Museo Nazionale del Bargello” and Harjula’s Sheaths, Scabbards, and Grip Coverings.

As always, click on the following photos to enlarge them.

Source Date Photo By Picture
Effigy of Niccolo Acciaiuoli
died 1365 Bildindex
Slab of Lorenzo Acciaiuoli
??? Me
Bibliotheque nationale du France, MS. Nouvelle Acquisition Française 5243 folio 26r
Said to have been painted between 1370 and 1380 Gallica
Painting of St. George, San Giorgetto, Verona
After 1360 by style of art Me
Statue of St. Sigismund (S. SIGISMONDO) on the tomb of Cansignorio della Scala, Verona
Begun in 1370, completed in 1376 Me
Statue of St. Louis of France (.S. ALUIXIUS REX) on the tomb of Cansignorio della Scala, Verona
Begun in 1370, completed in 1376 Me
Statue of St. George on the tomb of Cansignorio della Scala, Verona
Begun in 1370, completed in 1376 Me
Bibliotheca Trivulziana, MS. 691 Lucanus de Bello Civile fol. 87r
Postscript says that it was finished in 1373 Web Gallery of Art
Bibliotheca Trivulziana, MS. 691 Lucanus de Bello Civile fol. 119r
Postscript says that it was finished in 1373 Manus Online
Painting by Altichiero in Padua
1370s Ask me offline
BNF Latin 757 Missale ad Usum Fratrum Minorum fol. 57v
Said to date 1385-1390 Gallica
Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, object Gm1
Said to date 1400-1420 My photo

Many more paintings of daggers can be found in BNF Latin 757. The painters of this manuscript were very interested in belts and fittings and colours, even though miniature paintings provide less detail about shapes than large sculptures.

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Men in foot attack a castle with axes while a crossbowman on horseback spans a crossbow and another horseman protects him with a shield

Yes, mounted crossbowmen did shoot from horseback! This very rare image shows one spanning his bow. (From Lower Austria, 1301-1350: Württembergische Landesbibliothek, WLB HB XIII 6 Weltchronik & Marienleben fol. 218v)

Crossbows were tools for hunting and warfare, and they are fun machines. The medieval western crossbows are relatively simple, with a bow fastened to a stock, a revolving nut which holds back the string when the bow is spanned, and a long lever for a trigger to release the nut. Sights, more complicated triggers, and clips to hold the bolt against the stock seem to appear in the late 15th and 16th century and on bows for hunting and target practice. We have some great source material from medieval Italy like the rule of the crossbow-makers of Venice. Most types of crossbow appear in texts long before they appear in artwork or museum collections.

Iolo’s First Book of Crossbows is a great introduction aimed at SCA shooters who seem to have customs similar to the Victorian sport longbow clubs (light draw weights, lots of target shooting). He focuses on surviving crossbows, so the midpoint of his study is around 1500, and on making and shooting crossbows with steel or aluminum bows.

Josef Alm’s “European Crossbows: A Survey” (1947, English translation 1994), Egon Harmuth’s “Die Armbrust” (1986), and Jean Liebel’s “Springalds and Great Crossbows” are three standard academic works. There are some books focused on specific museum collections by Jens Sensfelder and Dirk Breiding. Holger Richter’s “Die Hornbogenarmbrust: Geschichte und Technik” (Verlag Angelika Hörnig: Ludwigshafen, 2006) focuses on surviving horn bows. Stuart Gorman’s PhD thesis compares longbows and crossbows but is stronger on surviving artefacts than written evidence. Victor Gay’s entry for Arbalète has some good texts and drawings. There is a bibliography at and a German journal, the Jahrblatt der Interessengemeinschaft Historische Armbrust.

Sir Ralph Payne-Gallway’s book from 1903 is widely available, but it has issues: he was an Edwardian gentleman-scholar who made things up or copied them from earlier researchers without crediting them (his onager catapult goes back to a French book by the Chevalier du Folard published in 1727 not the one ancient description or many 15th century paintings).

Documents are most interested in the type of bow (wood, horn, or steel) and the spanning mechanism. From 1200 to about 1340 we hear about one-foot crossbows (spanned with a stirrup and a belt hook?), two-foot crossbows (spanned by sitting down and pushing with both legs, allowing a longer draw?), and tour or vice crossbows (spanned using rotary motion) but we only have pictures of the first kind; there were also crossbows light enough to be spanned on horseback (Norwegian King’s Mirror).

French and English documents from the 14th and 15th century mention a spanning device called a hancepes (“haunce-foot”? the etymology is hard to understand: see Richardson, Medieval Inventories) Other than this difficult word, I do not know of evidence of the goat’s foot lever or the cranequin before 1410. In her Livre des fais d’armes et de chevalerie (1410), Christine de Pisane suggests that a castellan obtain 24 good arbalestres à tillale (spanned by rotary motion?), 6 arbalestres à tour, and 24 arbalestres à crocs “hook crossbows.” The tillolle and croc appear in rules for proofing armour at Angers in 1488.

Datini bought and sold vast numbers of quarrels (verrettoni) but I can’t recall him selling crossbows (balestre). There is a lot to be learned about crossbow terminology in this period, and about how practice in this period was diffrent from practice around 1500.

Gaston Phoebus’ Le livre de la chasse has some things to say about crossbows, and the illustrations are educational.ète

Back to table of contents ⇑


In the later middle ages, a “bed” was normally the covers, sheets, matresses, and other removable parts. The bed frame or bedstead itself was rarely mentioned since it was cheap and rarely bought or sold. As with tables and other furniture, the wooden parts were seen as less significant than the things placed on top of them. Respectable beds contained many of the same elements we expect today- matresses, sheets, a bedcover (coverlet, coverture, sometimes quilted for warmth), pillows- but of different shapes and materials- matresses were often stuffed with green branches, pillows were often cylindrical, and bed linens were really linen! Less respectable beds, and beds in cold regions like Norway, could be more primitive (article in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe, William Patten, The Expedicion into Scotlande).

… more to come …

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  • Simone Abraham-Thisse, “Les Aunes des drapiers au Moyen Age,” in J.-Cl. Hoquet (éd.), «Une activité universelle: peser et mesurer à travers les âges» Cahiers de Métrologie, Tomes 11-12 (1993-1994) pp. 385-399 {the best list of evidence for the length of various medieval ells which I have read (based mostly on handbooks for merchants from the 16th-18th centuries)}
  • Marko Aleksić, Mediaeval Swords from Southeastern Europe: Material from 12th to 15th Century (Belgrade: Duraplast, 2007)
  • Josef Alm, European Crossbows: A Survey. Royal Armouries Monograph 3 (1994) {I have not seen this}
  • Thomas Amyot, “Transcript of Two Rolls, Containing an Inventory of Effects formerly Belonging to Sir John Fastolfe.” Archaeologia XXI (1826) pp. 1-50 {this inventory from, probably, 1459 is in English and records everything someone very rich owned}
  • Anonymous, Le Ménagier de Paris (Paris, 1393). This unfinished treatise for women on household management (what Xenophon called oikonomia) addresses clothing and its repair and maintenance as well as #cooking, medicine, gardening, food preservation, and sex. The editio princeps was Jérôme Pichon (ed.), Traité de morale et d’économie domestique composé vers 1393 par un bourgeois parisien. 2 volumes. Paris: Imprimerie Crapelet, 1846-1847 and is available on gallica and the Internet Archive. There are translations in Eileen Power, The Goodman of Paris (1928; selective, excerpts on the Internet Medieval Sourcebook) and Gina L. Greco and Christine M. Rose, The Good Wife’s Guide: Le Ménagies de Paris, A Medieval Household Book (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009)
  • Anonymous, The Times of Edward the Black Prince: Replicas of his Achievements: Knights of the Gartet, Past and Present. Canterbury Papers No. 8 (The Friends of Canterbury Cathedral: Canterbury, 1954) {more information on the achievements of Edward of Woodstock and the construction of replicas to hang over his tomb}
  • Tina Anderlini, “The Shirt Attributed to St. Louis,” in Robin Netherton and Gale Owen-Crocker (eds.), Medieval Dress and Textiles 11 (2015) pp. 49-78 {there is a lot of information about this garment floating around online in English, including including an article by Heather Rose Jones, but this is the first study based on taking the shirt out of its case, and it turns out that modern stitches and hangers made it hard to understand the construction of this garment without laying it flat and handling it}
  • Janet Arnold, “The Jupon or Coat-Armour of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral,” Journal of the Church Monuments Society VIII (1993) pp. 12-22
  • Ruth Matilda Anderson, Hispanic Costume 1480-1530. Hispanic Society of America, New York, 1979. Isbn 87535-126-3. {very important paraphrases of early 16th century tailors and hosiers’ rules from Seville and Grenada … as far as I know, these sources have never been fully published (!)}
  • Louis Douet d’Arcq ed., Comptes de l’argenterie des rois de France au XIVe Siecle. Jules Renouard: Paris, 1851. and Nouveau recueil de comptes de l’argenterie des rois de France Jules Renouard: Paris, 1874. {some information on clothing is buried among other information eg. vol. 1 pp. 142-144, vol. 2 pages 150, 151}
  • Katherine Barich and Marion McNealy, Drei Schnittbücher: Three Austrian Master Tailor Books of the 16th Century (Nadel und Faden Press, 2015) {cutting plans and suggested materials for a variety of garments from late in the 16th century, with a detailed commentary … some important 14th century cuts are missing, but it shows a way of thinking about how to use fabric and some cuts which are good fits for garments in art. There are not as many measurements on the diagrams as in Spanish examples, but you can often use the width of the cloth as a yardstick. Facsimiles of the printed books by Diego de Freyle, Juan de Alcega, and Francisco de Burguen are much harder to obtain but digital editions are sometimes available}
  • W. Paley Baildon, “XXII.—A Wardrobe Account of 16–17 Richard II, 1393–4,” Archaeologia, Vol. 62 No. 2 (1911) pp. 497-514 {many lists of materials used to make specific garments for an English lord– probably Roger Mortimer the 4th Earl of March, say the latest books}
  • Claude Blair, “The Word ‘Baselard,'” Journal of the Arms and Armour Society XI.4 (1984), pp. 193-206, pl. XLVI, XLVII
  • Melanie Schuessler Bond, Dressing the Scottish Court, 1543-1553: Clothing in The Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland (Boydell Press, 2019) ISBN 9781783272624 hardcover {very worthwhile on its specific place and time, the section on military garments is very thin. If your focus is the age of Datini, The King’s Servants amd The Queen’s Servants are much better value for money}
  • Elisa Tosi Brandi, Abbigliamento e Società a Rimini nel XV Secolo (Panozzo Editore: Rimini, 2000) {summary of 99 inventories from Rimini dating between 1400 and 1468, with comments on the social context, sumptuary laws, etc. One of these is a wool draper’s shop (with full transcription!), two belong to men-at-arms. Her Italian is not complicated.}
  • Dorothy K. Burnham, Cut my Cote (1973) {the standard introduction to clothing assembled from rectangles and triangles, allowing almost all of the fabric to be used … in Datini’s world most clothing was probably assembled in other ways, but triangle-and-rectangle construction was still widespread in rural Europe at the beginning of the 20th century}
  • Cennino Cennini, Il Libro dell’ Arte. This treatise on painting, written before 1437 (possibly in the 1390s?), contains valuable material on block printing, painting textiles, materials used for different trades, and a way of approaching problems. Gaetano and Carlo Milanesi’s Italian text from 1867 is available on the Hathi Trust; the D.V. Thompson translation is available in an affordable reprint from Dover or free as HTML; the latest edition and translation is Lara Broecke, Cennino Cennini’s Il Libro dell’Arte: A new English translation and commentary with Italian transcription (Archetype Publications, 2015) ISBN-13 978-1909492288.
  • Camille Couderc, Les comptes d’un grand couturier parisien du XVe siècle (Paris: n.p., 1911) {Begins in the 1420s and not tremendously exciting (more summaries than complete lists of materials for specific garments)}
  • J. Cowgill, M. de Neergaard, and P. Wilthew, Knives and Scabbards. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 1. Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2000. {The basic reference on knives, sheaths, shears, and scissors from the 12th to the 15th century, with many measurements and B&W drawings}
  • Ann Crabb, The Merchant of Prato’s Wife (University of Michigan Press, 2015) ISBN 978-0-472-11949-3 {basically a book of social history, and tends to summarize rather than quote sources, but many details about how clothing fit into everyday life}
  • Elizabeth Crowfoot, “The Clothing of a Fourteenth-Century Nubian Bishop.” In Veronika Gervers eds., Studies in Textile History in Memory of Harold B. Burnham (Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1977) OCLC 4035631 {Grave of Bishop Timotheos of Ibrîm in Nubia who took office, according to the scroll deposited in the tomb, in 1372. Where in wet sites from Europe the wool survives and the linen is lost, here the linen and cotton survived and the wool was devoured by insects! The grave goods include a tunic, hooded oval cloak, trousers, and woven belt}
  • Chrétien Dehaisnes, Documents et extraits diverses concernant l’histoire de l’Art (Lille: L. Daniel, 1886) volume 1 {mostly on books, armour, goldsmith’s work, and other durable goods but there are some banners and other tailor’s work}
  • Carol van Driel-Murray “Fourteenth-century sword sheaths from Leiden city centre.” In Quita Mould (ed.) Leather in Warfare: Attack, Defence and the Unexpected. (Leeds: Royal Armouries Museum, 2017) pp. 34-47 {the leathers of sword sheaths, probably mostly from the early 14th century}
  • Geoff Egan and Frances Pritchard, Dress Accessories, 1150-1450. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London. London: HMSO, 1991. {Covers buckles and other metal mounts for leather, broaches, rings, buttons, needlecases, combs, girdles and straps, pouches, and mirrors in cases}
  • Joan Evans, Dress in Mediaeval France. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952. {one of the last works in the antiquarian tradition, this book is a good guide to medieval texts to track down and read in the original language … be careful of her paraphrases of the sources, and remember that she was writing when few surviving garments and textile fragments had been published}
  • Guilhelm Ferrand with help from Jean-Pierre Garcia, Les inventaires après décès de la ville de Dijon à la fin du Moyen Âge (1390-1459). Tome I : 1390-1408 (Méridiennes Presses Universitaires du Midi: Tolouse, 2018) ISBN-13 978-2-8107-0544-3 {for 25 Euros you get 660 pages of nice detailed technical sources, what are you waiting for? You can buy it direct from the publisher or find it on Bookfinder}
  • Ilse Fingerlin, Gürtel des hohen und späten Mittelalters. Kunstwissenschaftliche Studien, Bd. 46. München: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1971. {Robert Macpherson tentatively recommends it as a typology of belt furniture}
  • Jessica Finley, “The Lübeck Wappenröcke: Distinctive Style in Fifteenth-Century German Fabric Armor.” In Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker (eds.), Medieval Clothing and Textiles 13 (Boydell and Brewer, 2017) pp. 121-152
  • Édouard Forestié, Les Livres de comptes des frères Bonis, marchands montalbanais du XIVe siècle. Archives Historiques de la Gascogne, Fasc. XX, XXIII, XXVI. Honore Champion and Cocharaux Frères: Paris and Auch, 1890 and 1893 and 1894. {The accounts of this family of drapers list the cloth sold to make specific garments for specific people in specific years; the editor collected references to specific garments, suggested French equivalents of Occitan words, and researched weights, measures, etc.}.
  • François-Alexandre-Pierre de Garsault, Art du Tailleur (1769) English translation of the section on men’s shirts {more detailed than the Austrian and Spanish books from the 16th century, since the author was a scholar trying to explain the art to a wide audience}
  • François-Alexandre-Pierre de Garsault, L’Art de la Lingere (1771) {instructions for men’s (p. 44, pl. III) and women’s shirts and other linens, and he defines all the different stitches with diagrams}
  • Victor Gay, Glossaire Archéologique du Moyen Age et de la Renaissance. Paris: Libraire de la Société Archéologique, 1887 and 1928. Tome 1 A-G and Tome 2 H-Z have been scanned. {A collection of excerpts from written sources, mostly from France and all in the original language. Useful entries include Armurier, Bourras, Bourreau (related to bourre ‘stuffing’), Chape, Chapron, Chausses, Doublet A. Vetir, Gipe, Gipon (jupon), Gonne, Gambeson, Harnais, Hoqueton (ie. aketon) … Pourpoint
  • A. Geibig, Beiträge zur morphologischen Entwicklung des Schwertes im Mittelalter. Eine Analyse des Fundmaterials von ausgehenden 8. bis 12. Jahrhundert aus Sammlungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Offa-Bücher 71. Neumünster, 1991. {non vidi; pp. 104 ff. discuss scabbards from this early period}
  • Veronika Gervers, “Medieval Garments in the Mediterranean World.” In N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (eds.), Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe. Pasold Studies in Textile History 2 (London: Heinemann, 1983) pp. 298-315 {very important diagrams of surviving garments, although their current location and museum number are not always clear}
  • Matthew Gnagy, The Modern Maker Vol. 1: Men’s 17th Century Doublets (self-published, 2014) ISBN-13 978-0692264843 {for the purposes of this project, use it for the lessons in how to draft a pattern using two or three measurements, and the advice on efficiently making clothing by hand … most of the techniques taught and materials chosen are more applicable to 16th century and later fashions, but Gnagy is a trained suitmaker in a field where most makers are self-taught. See also his revised pattern, which he calls errata sheets (warning: Facebook!)}
  • Eunice Rathbone Goddard, Women’s Costume in French Texts of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. The Johns Hopkins Studies in Romance Literatures and Languages Volume VII (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1927)
  • Gorman, Stuart (2016) “The Technological Development of the Bow and the Crossbow in the Later Middle Ages.” Ph.D. Thesis, Trinity College Dublin.
  • Olaf Goubitz, Purses in Pieces: Archaeological Finds of Late Medieval and 16th Century Leather Purses, Pouches, Bags and Cases in the Netherlands. 2nd Edition. SPA Uitgevers: 2009. ISBN-13 978-9089320148 {Covers purses, pouches, wallets, bags, and leather cases with a removable lid sliding on cords (etuis) from the Netherlands, with some references to objects as early as the Roman period and as late as the 20th century}
  • Janne Harjula, Sheaths, Scabbards and Grip Coverings: Use of Leather for Portable Personal Objects in 14th-16th Century Turku (SKAS, 2006) ISBN-13 978-9519680149
  • Adrien Harmand, Jeanne d’Arc, son costume, son armure: essai de reconstitution (Paris: Editions Leroux: Paris, 1929) {many, many modern patterns derive from this obscure book, which also contains the most detailed publication of the cloth-of-gold pourpoint of Charles du Blois}
  • Egon Harmuth, Die Armbrust: Ein Handbuch (Akadem. Druck.- und Verlagsanst.: Graz, 1975) ISBN-13 3201009334 9783201009331
  • Albert Hartshorne, “The Sword Belts of the Middle Ages,” The Archaeological Journal 48 (1891) pp. 320-34 {thanks Harry Maniakis}
  • Maria Hayward (ed.), The Great Wardrobe Accounts of Henry VII and Henry VIII (London Record Society, 2012) ISBN-13 9780900952524 {covers the years 1498/1499 and 1510/1511, as well as the section of the 1544 account relating to Henry VIII’s campaign in France}
  • John G. Hawthorne and Cyril Stanley Smith (tr.), Theophilius on Divers Arts: The Foremost Medieval Treatise on Painting, Glassmaking and Metalwork. Dover Publications Inc: New York, 1979 {a convenient English translation of Theophilius Presbyter de diversis artibus libri III}
  • Constance B. Hieatt, Brenda Hosington, and Sharon Butler, Pleyn Delit: Medieval Cookery for Modern Cooks. Second Edition. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 1996. #cooking
  • Ada Bruhn Hoffmeyer, Middelalderens Tvaeggede Svaerd (PhD Dissertation, Copenhagen, 1954) {the pioneering typology of the medieval #sword, unfortunately it was never printed or translated into a world language}
  • Gerhard Folke Wulf Holtmann, Untersuchung zu mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen Messern. Dissertationsschrift, Fachbereich Historisch-Philologische Wissenschaften, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen (1994) {a study of 1300 knives from the Germanic world with line drawings}
  • Christine Howard-Davis (ed.) The Carlisle Millennium Project: Excavations in Carlisle, 1998-2001, Volume 2: The Finds. Oxford Archaeology North: Lancaster, 2009. ISBN 9780904220575
  • Wolfgang Jahn, Jutta Schumann, Evamaria Brockhoff (eds.), Edel und Frei. Franken im Mittelalter. Veröffentlichungen zur Bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur 47/04 (Augsburg 2004) ISBN 3-927233-91-9
  • Sophie Jolivet, Pour soi vêtir honnêtement à la cour de monseigneur le duc de Bourgogne, Costume et dispositif vestimentaire à la cour de Philippe le Bon de 1430 à 1455. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Université de Bourgogne, 2003. {I have not read this in full (the focus is too late), but check out the et un garde-corps de cuir de cerf pour vêtir sur son pourpoint à armer on page 242 and similarly on page 271}
  • Elizabeth Jones, “Farsetto Construction of the Italian Renaissance (1425-1470)” (2002) {useful Italian and English bibliography with summary for English speakers, strongest on documents and art and on her own experiences imitating these garments}
  • Heather Rose Jones, “Another Look at St. Louis’ Shirt” (2004) {good suppliment to Burnham’s diagram of the shirt of St. Louis, but now see the study by Tina Anderlini who was allowed to handle the original}
  • Tasha Dandelion Kelly, The Pourpoint of Charles de Blois: An Adapted Sewing Pattern for Chest Sizes 37-50 (lulu, 2011)
  • Katrin Kania, Kleidung im Mittelalter: Materialien – Konstruktion – Nähtechnik: ein Handbuch (Böhlau Verlag: Wien und Köln, 2010) {very strong on surviving clothing and textiles and offers a reasonable way of drafting single and double garments without modern tools like measuring tapes or paper patterns, but not as interested in texts and art or in quilted and stuffed garments}
  • Claudia Kusch, Patrizia Mignani, Raffaella Pozzi (eds.), Redire 1427-2009. Ritorno alla luce. Il restauro del Farsetto di Pandolfo III Malatesti. I Quaderni del museo, 2. Museo Civico di Fano: Fano, IT, 2009. {the conservation report on a doublet from a 15th century tomb in Italy, I have not seen this but there is an English summary by Andrea Carloni (backed up on the Wayback Machine}
  • L.E.S.J. Laborde, Ducs de Bourgogne: études sur les lettres, les artes et l’industrie pendant le XVe siècle et plus particulèrement dans le Pays-Bas et le duché de Bourgogne, Tome 1 {miscellaneous expenses from the 1380s onwards, note the payment to Chretien de Pisan on page 16}
  • Maurice Leloir, “A Mediaeval Doublet,” Apollo: The International Magazine of the Arts Vol. 23 Nr. 135 (March 1936) pp. 157-160 {the most important publication in English on the pourpoint of Charles du Blois, with measurements and a pattern taken off the garment different from the pattern in Harmand}
  • René de Lespinasse ed., Les métiers et corporations de la ville de Paris: XIVe-XVIIIe siècles. Tissus, étoffes, vêtements, cuirs et peaux, métiers divers (Imprimerie Nationale: Paris, 1886-1897). {Check out tailors pp. 178ff, pourpontiers pp. 205ff, friperers (who refurbished and resold old clothes) pp. 421ff}
  • Jean Liebel, Springalds and Great Crossbows. Royal Armouries Monograph 5 (1998). Juliet Vale tr.
  • Rex Lingwood, “John Waterer and the ‘Cuir Bouilli’ Confusion,” {argues that surviving hardened leather objects from Europe fall into two families produced by two different processes, and that we can’t assume that either existed since time immemorial}
  • Sir James Gow Mann, The Funeral Achievements of Edward the Black Prince. 3rd ed., rev. London: Clowes, 1951. OCLC 931194576 {this booklet describes the great helm, coat armour, sheath, shield, and gauntlets which were displayed with his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral until they were replaced by replicas in 1954}
  • Maria Socorro Mantilla de los Rios y Rojas et al., Vestiduras Pontificales del Arzobispo Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada. Siglo XIII: Su Estudio y Restauracion (Madrid: Instituto Conservación y Restauración de Bienes Culturales, 1995) {on a 13th century shirt}
  • Albert Lecoy de la Marche, “Le Bagage d’un étudiant en 1347,” Mémoires de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France (1889) 5e Série 10e Tome ( = Tome 50) pp. 162-182 {a student from Paris died suddenly on the road on 6 November 1347, and after one look through his saddlebags they decided to inventory his property very carefully}
  • Ronald W. Lightbrown, Medieval European Jewellery: With a Catalogue of the Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Victoria and Albert Publications: 1992) {I have not read this but its said to be good}
  • S.M. Margeson, Norwich Households: Medieval and Post-Medieval Finds from Norwich Survey Excavations 1971-78. East Anglian Archaeology 58. Norwich Survey: Norwich, 1993. ISBN: 952069504 {miscellaneous catalogue from a dry site, basic commentary on classes of finds such as aiglets}
  • Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui, The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages, 1100-1600 (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1981) ISBN 9780521089609 {essential reading for anyone interested in trecento clothing, especially the raw materials and guild regulations}
  • Meek, Christine (2019) “Regulating and Refashioning Dress: Sumptuary Legislation and Its Enforcement in Fourteenth- and Early fifteenth-Century Lucca,” in Gale R. Owen-Crocker and Marien Clegg Hyer (eds.), Refashioning Medieval and Early Modern Dress: A Tribute to Robin Netherton (Boydell Press: Woodbridge, Suffolk) pp. 211-235
  • M. J. de Mendonca, O Loudel do Rei D. Joao I. Lisboa (1973) {Conservation report on same garment described by Teixara 1999. Said to consist of “a few layers of linen with combed wool quilted in between, and it had a green woolen fabric as outer shell.”}
  • Arkadiusz Michalak et al., “A fourteenth century Baselard from Lake Ostrowite in Northern Poland,” Acta Militaria Mediaevalia XIII (2017) pp. 165-180 {on a quillion dagger with a well-made copper-alloy chape and locket}
  • Luca Mola, The Silk Industry in Renaissance Venice (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000) {non vidi set Gregorius Mele condiscipulis comendat, addresses the lower grades of silk cloth as well as the famous patterned weaves, satins, and velvets won by the richest}
  • Michel Mollat (ed.), Comptes généraux de l’Etat bourguignon entre 1416 et 1420 (Paris: Imprimerie nationale/Libraire C. Klincksieck, 1965-1966). {the prèmier partie (1965) page 197 is said to talk about pourpoints stuffed with cotton}
  • Giovanni Monticolo (ed.), I capitolari delle arti veneziane: sottoposte alla giustizia e poi alla giustizia vecchia dalle origini al MCCCXXX (Roma: Tipografo del Senato, 1896) #documents #regulations {the rules of the zuparii (makers of quilted clothing) of Venice from 1219 onwards, plus the sartores “tailors,” balistarii “crossbow-makers”, dyers, etc.; the scan on Google Books is not usable}
  • Quita Mould, Ian Carlisle, and Esther Cameron (eds.) Leather and Leatherworking in Anglo-Scandinavian and Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 16 Craft, Industry, and Everyday Life. York Archaeological Trust: Walmgate, York, 2003. {sword sheaths are mostly before this period but show the development and the stitching is well described}
  • John H. Munro, “The anti-red shift– to the ‘Dark Side’: Colour changes in Flemish luxury woollens, 1300 – 1550.” Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2007) pp. 55-98 {study of the colours of cloth purchased by Flemish towns based on exhaustive archival research … I wish he made the basis for his statements about the width of cloths and length of different yards and ells clearer, but this reflects 40 years of thought and research and he was very generous to make it available for free before his death in 2013. Notably, he rejects the idea that black cloth was expensive: in the archives he has read, the expensive colours were ‘scarlet’ and ‘in grain’ and the various blacks, browns, violets, blues, greens, and reds all had prices which were statistically indistinguishable from one another. You can get a sense for the kind of person he was on his faculty page}
  • John H. Munro, “The Medieval Scarlet and the Economics of Sartorial Splendour.” This was first published in a Gedenkschrift, namely N.B. Harte and K.G. Ponting (eds.), Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Honour of Professor E.M. Carus-Wilson (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2) (Heinemann Educational Books: London, 1983) pp. 13-70 and reprinted in his collected articles (Textiles, Towns, and Trade: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot UK, 1994) {the standard article on the highest-quality woolen cloth known as scarlet, and its relationship to cloth dyed in grain (with kermes)}
  • Stella Mary Newton, Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of the Years 1340 to 1365 (several printings, most recently Boydell Press 2012) {the work of a self-educated dress historian at the end of a long career, this book is especially strong on how people reacted to the new fashions of this period and translates many sources, but some of the details can be quibbled with}
  • Nockert, Margareta (1985) Bockstensmannen och Hans Dräkt (“The Bocksten Man and His Clothing”) (Stiftelsen Hallands länsmuseer, Halmstad och Varberg: Falkenberg, Sweden) {the essential source on this murder victim who would have been in fashion in the early 14th century. Everyone who re-draws these changes something and leaves out some of the numbers}
  • A.V.B Norman, The Rapier and Small-Sword, 1460-1820 (Arms and Armour Press, Lionel Leventhal Limited: London, 1980) {covers sword hilts and scabbards, but not blades}
  • Beatrice Nutz, “Jagdkleidung Kaiser Maximilian I. / Hunting garments of Emperor Maximilian I” (2019) {edition and translation of a manuscript on hunting by emperor Maximillian from 1508, partilly in his own hand}
  • Ewart Oakeshott, The Sword in the Age of Chivalry (ed. pr. 1964, second edition The Boydell Press: Woodbridge, 1994) {probably the best introduction to the late medieval #sword in English, very clear on his famous typology and its limits}
  • Ewart Oakeshott, Records of the Medieval Sword (The Boydell Press, 1991)
  • Patrick Ottaway and Nicola Rogers, Craft, Industry and Everyday Life: Finds from Medieval York. The Archaeology of York, Volume 17 The Small Finds, Fasc. 15 (Council for British Archaeology, 2002) {Locks and keys, scissors and shears, knives, firesteels (“strike-a-lights”), ceramics and glassware, little metal mounts for leatherwork …}
  • Gale R. Owen-Crocker, Elizabeth Jane Coatsworth, Maria Hayward eds., Encyclopedia of dress and textiles in the British Isles c. 450-1450 (Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2012) {Useful entries on Aketon, Doublet, Gambeson, Jack, Pourpoint, etc. with some unpublished or very obscure lists of materials, and on weights, measures, and types of fabric}
  • Ernest Petit, Les itinéraires de Philippe le Hardi et de Jean sans Peur, ducs de Bourgogne (1363-1419) (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1888)
  • Rosita Levi Pisetzky, Storia del Costume in Italia, 5 volumi (Istituto Editoriale Italiano {Treccani}, 1974/1975) {the standard reference on written, carved, and painted source, if you are serious about this subject and can read Italian you need to borrow this. It has probably 80% of the artwork which floats around the Internet today (and some art which most people interested in medieval clothing do not know) and a mass of quotes from contemporary documents and literature, and it treats specific places and times in depth rather than dancing over 500 years in 250 pages. It was reprinted in 2005 by the Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome. For a table of contents see Volume 2 covers the 1300s and the 1400s}
  • B. Prost, Inventaires, mobiliers et extraits des comptes des ducs de Bourgogne de la maisson de Valois, 1363-1477, 2 vols (Paris, 1902 and 1913)
  • Susan D. Reed, “15th-Century Men’s Doublets: An Overview” (1994, 2004) {very important bibliography for the 14th century, the list of artwork is a good starting point}
  • Luciano Salvatici (ed.), Posate, Pugnali, Coltelli da Caccia del Museo Nazionale del Bargello. Museo Nazionale del Bargello: Florence, 1999. ISBN 88 7242 285X. {half a dozen relevant knives and daggers with one B&W photo and a paragraph of text apiece}
  • Barbara Santich, The Original Mediterranean Cuisine: Medieval Recipes for Today Second Edition (Equinox Publishing, 2018) {unlike the English recipes in The Forme of Cury and Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, this draws on manuscripts from Catalonia and Italy; non vidi sed Stephanus Muhlberger ad lectores commendat #cooking #kitchen}
  • Ferdinando Sartini (ed.) Statuti dell’arte dei rigattieri e linaioli di Firenze (1296-1340). Regia Deputazione di Storia Partia per la Toscana, Fonti e studi sule corporazione artigiane del medio evo, II (Florence: Felice le Monnier, ed., 1940) #documents #regulations {the riggatieri repaired and resold used goods and made new quilted clothing (they combined the roles of fripperers and junk-dealers in England and France); their rule is not as useful as the French rules, but is in easy notarial Latin, and the publication date may explain why the index only covers the first 1/3 of the alphabet}
  • Christiane Schnack. Mittelalterliche Lederfunde aus Schleswig – Futterale, Riemen, Taschen und andere Objekte. Ausgrabung Schild 1971-1975. Ausgrabungen in Schleswig – Berichte und Studien, Band 13. Wachholz Verlag: Neumünster, 1998. ISBN-13 3-529-01463-X. {prices as of summer 2017 are extortionate on Bookfinder, but AntikMakler in Germany has copies for EUR 39,00}
  • Schulze-Dörlamm, Mechthild (1995) Das Reichsschwert: Ein Herrschaftszeichen des Saliers Heinrich IV. und des Welfen Otto IV. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen. {Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani recommends on the ‘Sword of St. Maurice’ and its gold-plated olivewood scabbard in Vienna}
  • Denis-François Secousse (ed.) Ordonnances des rois de France de la troisième race (Paris) septième volume (1383-1394), huitième volume (1395-1403), and neuvième volume (1404-1411) {the ancien regime had its weaknesses, but they did manage to print all the laws of the Capetians before that trouble at the forks of the Ohio. These volumes can be searched for words such as tailleur, cousturier, and pourpointier}
  • Jeffrey L. Singman and Will McLean, Daily Life in Chaucer’s England. Daily Life through History Series. London and Westport, Connetticut: Greenwood Press, 1995.
  • Susan Moshe Stuard, Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century Italy (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006) ISBN 9780812239003 {chatty book on material culture by someone who mainly works with written sources}
  • Isis Sturtewagen, All together respectably dressed: fashion and clothing in Bruges during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Doctoral dissertation, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, 2016 {this book focuses on inventories from the mid-15th-century onwards, but I encourage my gentle readers to buy the printed version as soon as it appears}
  • Maria Emília Amaral Teixeira, tr. Isabel Motta, O loudel de D. João I/The Loudel of D. João I 3rd edition (Museu de Alberto Sampaio, 1999) ISBN 972-776-012-0 {a sleeveless quilted garment said to have been dedicated after the battle of Aljubarrota between Castilian and Anglo-Portugese forces in 1385}
  • Augustin Thierry (ed.), Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du tiers état: prèmière série, chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des corporations d’arts et metiers des villes et communes de France, région du Nord. Tome deuxième (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1853) {rule of the pourpointiers of Amiens from Febuary 1428/1429}
  • Augustin Thierry (ed.), Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du tiers état: prèmière série, chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des corporations d’arts et metiers des villes et communes de France, région du Nord. Tome quatrième (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1870) {Table of contents lists rules for glovers (1478), pourpointiers (c. 1480), armourers (who also made scabbards), and drapers-chaussers}
  • Sarah Thursfield, The Medieval Tailor’s Assistant: Common Garments 1100-1480. 2nd Edition, Revised and Expanded (Crowood Press, 2015) available from publisher {I have mixed feelings about this book, it teaches practical sewing skills and good philosophy like ‘don’t obsess about finding exactly the right material’ but her doublets are not shaped like originals}
  • Marco Vignola, Riflessioni sulla basilarda. Analisi tipologiche e spunti ricostruttivi (Bookstones: Rimini, 2016) {booklet on basilards with a typology, photos of surviving examples, and details for bladesmiths}
  • Marco Vignola, Armature e armorari nella Milano medievale: Storia di famiglie, signa, magli e acciaio (Edizioni dell’Orso: Alessandria, IT, 2017) ISBN 978-88-6274-762-2
  • Robin Vogelzang tr., Joan Santanach ed., The Book of Sent Soví: Medieval recipes from Catalonia (Barcino-Tamesis, 2008) ISBN-13 9781855661646 #cooking
  • Marquita Volken, Archaeological Footwear: Development of Shoe Patterns and Styles from Prehistory til the 1600’s (SPA Uitgevers, 2014) ISBN-13 978-9089321176
  • Marquita Volken, “Arming Shoes of the Fifteenth Century,” Acta Periodica Duellatorum 5.2 (December 2017) pp. 25-45 {by a very respected expert in shoes, but her friends in armour seem unhappier about medieval shoes than my friends in armour}
  • Watson, David R. (2009) Iolo’s First Book of Crossbows. 2nd Edition (Gwasg Caeseg Wen Press: Austin, TX)
  • Annemariek Willemsen. Medieval Chic in Metal: Decorative Mounts on Belts and Purses From the Low Countries, 1300-1600. Stichting Promotie Archeologie, 2012.
  • Annemarieke Willemsen, “‘Man is a sack of muck girded with silver’: Metal Decoration on Late-medieval Leather Belts and Purses from the Netherlands, Medieval Archaeology 56 (2012) pp. 171-202 DOI: 10.1179/0076609712Z.0000000006 {summary of her book on small finds}
  • Annemarieke Willemsen, Honderden… Van hand tot hand: handschoenen en wanten in de Nederlanden voor 1700. Spa uitgevers B.V.: Leiden, 2015. ISBN-13 9789089321275.
  • C.M. Woolgar, Household Accounts from Medieval England. Records of social and economic history, New Series, 17 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992 and 1993) {one book published in two parts: the first explains his methods and talks about the physical documents, the second has most of the clothing and accessories}
  • Ronald Edward Zupko, Italian Weights and Measures from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society 145 (American Philosophical Society: Philadelphia, 1981) {non vidi nam non habemus}

Things to Add

Add Frangioni’s books and articles, then there should be the web resources …

Roland Warzecha Dimicator {honourable mention: he is in to swords, shields, and the Viking Age}
A Damsel in this Dress
Chaucer’s Compagnie
Medieval York: Eulalia Hath a Blogge
The Turnip of Terror
Project Broad Axe

Statuts des marchands drapiers et chaussetiers d’Abbeville, 14 août 1497. (Thierry, Augustin, “Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du Tiers Etat…”)

“L. Statut des Parmentiers, Pourpointiers et Tailleurs” (1480) In Augustin Thiérry, Recueil des monuments inédits de l’histoire du Tiers-Etat. Première série, Chartes, coutumes, actes municipaux, statuts des villes et communes de France. Région du Nord. 2. IV. Contenant les pièces relatives à l’histoire municipale d’Abbeville et à celle des villes, bourgs et villages de la Basse-Picardie… (Paris: Félix Bourquelot et Charles Louandre, 1850-1870) pp. 311-314

Ordonnances de Rois du France XV has the rule of the pourpointiers of Bordeaux from 1462

Statuts des tailleurs de Poitiers, mars 1461. (“Ordonnance des rois de France…”) pp. 402ff.

“4. Ordnung des Raths über die Meisterprüfung der Schneider. 1454, Mai 25. Altestes Rathbuch, Bl. 26.” In Max Bär (ed.), Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Verfassung und Verwaltung der Stadt Koblenz bis zum Jahre 1500 (Bonn: Hermann Behrend, 1898) pp. 236-238 ; the quote is page 237 line 8 (they also have an ordinances for hatters etc.) “(als meisterstück soll er schneidern) eynen gemeynen mans tabert und eyns mans wambusch mit gelenken oder ufglaichten armen, wie man das nent.”

Statuts des chaussetiers de Touraine, février 1447. (“Ordonnances des rois de France…”)

Grimm s.v. Wams n. etc. (note that the Gebrüder Grimm mix a thousand years of language history into one entry, so each requires close attention to the source and date of each passage quoted)

Adolf Diestelkamp, Die Entwicklung des Schneidergewerbes in Deutschland bis zum Ausgang des 16. Jahrhunderts, G. Eilert: Unna in Westfalen, 1922. OCLC 928145795

Ernst Müllerleile, Die Gewandschneidergilde in Hildesheim, 1913. OCLC 71961264. “Aus Zeitschrift d. hist. Ver. f. Niedersachsen. Jg. 78.”

Sabine Struckmeier, Die Textilfärberei vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Frühen Neuzeit: Eine naturwissenschaftlichßtechnische Analyse deutschsprachiger Quellen. Cottbuser Studien zur Geschichte von Technik, Arbeit und Umwelt 35. Waxmann: Münster, 1935. {check out pages 39 and following for a list of 14th and 15th century manuscripts with several hundred dyers’ recipes, many of them unpublished but some in Ploss’ Buch von alten Farben or Oltrogge, Datenbank mittelalterlicher und frühneuzeitlicher Rezepte in handschriftlichre Überlieferung =}

Poems of Peter Suchwirt (d. 1395)

Wey, Willian (1458) “A Provision.” In In George Willias and Bulkeley Bandinel (eds.), The Itineraries of William Wey, fellow of Eton college. To Jerusalem, A.D. 1458 and A.D. 1462; and to Saint James of Compostella, A.D. 1456. From the original manuscript in the Bodleian library (Roxburghe Club: London, 1857) pp. 4-7 Condensed, Modern English version at

Zimmermann, P. Die junge Haushälterinn, ein Buch für Mütter und Töchter. Basel, 1792 /Luzern: Anich, 1807 {I have not seen this but the webmistress of recommends it}

Material from Niklas’ bibliography Quellen des 14.Jahrhunderts – Literatur für die persönliche Ausstattung (2015): Christiane Schnack, „Mittelalterliche Lederfunde aus Konstanz“; Heinz Knorr, „Messer und Dolch – Eine Untersuchung zur mittelalterlichen Waffenkunde in gesellschaftlicher Sicht“ in Veröffentlichungen des Museums Potsdam 6 (1971) pp. 121-145; Hilke Saggau, „Mittelalterliche Eisenfunde aus Schleswig“; Ronald W. Lightbown „Medieval European Jewelry“; Harry Kühnel, “Alltag im Spätmittelalter”; Jan Keupp, “Die Wahl des Gewandes: Mode, Macht und Möglichkeitssinn in Gesellschaft und Politik des Mittelalters,” Ostfildern: Jan Thorbecke Verlag 2010; Ilse Fingerlin, „Gürtel des hohen und späten Mittelalters“

Material on documents in Holtmann:

  • Konrad Ullmann, “Dolchmesser, Dolche und Kurzwehren des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts im Kernraum der Hanse,” Waffen- und Kostümkunde 1-2 (1961)
  • Konrad Ullmann, Das Werk der Waffenschmiede, Schriften zur Kulturgeschichte des Rheinisch-Westfälischen Industriegebietes, Heft 11, Essen (1962)
  • F. Fuhse, Schmiede und verwandte Gewerbe in der Stadt Braunschweig, Leipzig 1930
  • F. Fuhse, Handwerksaltertümer, Braunschweig 1935

Jens Sensfelder, Crossbows in the Royal Netherlands Army Museum (2008)

Dirk H. Breiding, “A Deadly Art: European Crossbows, 1250–1850” (2014)

Charles Alexander, Baron de Cosson, “The Crossbow of Ulrich V. Count of Wurtemburg (sic), 1460, with remarks on its construction,” Archaeologia, Vol. 52 No. 2 (1893) pp. 445-464, pl. 34 {the first article to dissect a European composite crossbow, and to publish two list of materials for making some in 1358 and 1361; the titular crossbow is now Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, accession number 04.3.36}

De Groote, Koen, et al. (2018) “Daer Nu de Boochmakere up Woendt: Geschiedenis En Archeologie van Christoffels Jans, Kruisboogmaker Aan de Veemarkt Te Aalst (1489-1498).” In Koen de Groote and Jan Moens (eds.), Archeologie en geschiedenis van een middeleeuwse woonwijk onder de Hopmarkt te Aalst. Relicta Monografieën 16. (Brussels: Onroerend Erfgoed, 2018) pp. 373-424 {descriptions of scraps found in the house of a late 15th cenutury crossbow-maker}

Roland Thomas Richardson, The Medieval Inventories of the Tower of London, 1320-1410 (PhD thesis, University of York, 2012)

Thom Richardson, The Tower Armoury in the Fourteenth Century (The Royal Armouries, 2018)

Gaston Phoebus, Livre de chasse (1387-1389): {This was translated into English by Henry II Duke of York between 1406 and 1413 and modernized in 1904 as Master of the Game [with a forward by Theodore Roosevelt!] but that version may be missing some technical details about crossbows, I need to look at both versions}

R. Beuing und W. Augustyn (eds.) Schilde des Spätmittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit (Passau: Klinger Verlag, 2019) ISBN 978-3-86328-172-4 for sale from Reszension:

Kirsten O. Frieling, Sehen und gesehen werden. Kleidung an Fürstenhöfen an der Schwelle vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit (ca. 1450–1530). (Mittelalter-Forschungen, Bd. 41.) Ostfildern, Thorbecke 2013

Jan Kohlmorgen, Der mittelalterliche Reiterschild: Historische Entwicklung von 975 bis 1350 und Anleitung zum Bau eines kampftauglichen Schildes (Wald-Michelbach: Karfunkel-Verlag, 2002)

Lüken, Sven / Sensfelder, Jens / Jäger, Felix / Reineke, Brigitte (eds.) (2019) Die Armbrust: Schrecken und Schönheit (Hirmer Verlag: München / Deutsches Historisches Museum: Berlin)

Rasmo, Nicolo (1980) Die Mode als Wegweiser für die Datierung von Kunstwerken des 14. Jh. in Südtirol

Sophie Jolivet, “Bibliographie sur le vêtement au Moyen Age.”

Madou Mireille, Das Mittelalterliche Kostüm in den Niederlanden (Terminologie und Typologie mittelalterlicher Sachgüter: das Beispiel der Kleidung). Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für mittelalterliche Realienkunde Österreichs 10: Sitzungsberichte der österreiche Akademie der wissenschaften phil. hist., kl. 511, Wien, 1988, p. 77-92.

Ploss., E. Ein Buch von alter Farben – Technologie der Textilfarben im Mittelalter, München, 1967 (6e édition, München, 1989).

HOCQUET Jean-Claude., La métrologie historique, Paris, P.U.F. 1995

DOURSTHER Horace, Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, réedition, Méridian, Amsterdam, 1965.

Emil Levy, Provinzalisches Supplement-Wörterbuch: Berichtungen und Ergänzungen zu Raynouards Lexique Roman. Many volumes (O.R. Reisland: Leipzig, 1894 and later)
A to C
D to Eng
Eng to F
G to L
P to Q
R to S

M. Raynouard, Lexique Roman ou Dictionnaire de la Langue des Troubadours, comparée avec les autres Langues de l’Europe Latine. Many volumes (Silvestre Libraire: Paris)
A to C
D to K
L to P
Q to Z

Max von Boehn, Die Mode: Menschen und Moden im Mittelalter: Vom Untergang der Alten Welt bis zur Renaissance (München 1925)

Miriam, “Herjolfsnes Errors Repository”

Marquita Volken and Olaf Goubitz, Covering the Blade: Archaeological Leather Sheaths and Scabbards (Spa-Uitgevers, 2020) ISBN-13 9789089320513 {on finds from Dordrecht, the sequel to Purses in Pieces}

Magninus Mediolanensis Opusculum de Saporibus (a book of sauces for #cooking from about 1330-1340: Lynn Thorndike, “A Mediaeval Sauce-Book,” Speculum Vol. 9, No. 2 (April 1934), pp. 183-190, Terence Scully, “The ‘Opusculum de Saporibus’ of Magninus Mediolanensis,” Medium Ævum Vol. 54, No. 2 (1985), pp. 178-207. Thanks Sophia of Neues aus der Gothik!)

Clothes of the Common People In Elizabethan and Early Stuart England: A User’s Manual (Stuart Press: Blackwell, England)

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