Rules of the Venetian Guilds

Author: The crossbow-makers of Venice
Original Language: Latin
Place of Composition: Venice
Date of Composition: before September 1278 to February 1307 (their reckoning, with years starting on 25 March)/1308 (our reckoning)
Source of Text: Giovanni Monticolo (ed.), I capitolari delle arti veneziane: sottoposte alla giustizia e poi alla giustizia vecchia dalle origini al MCCCXXX (Roma: Tipografo del Senato, 1896) pp. 171-180
Source of Translation: n/a
Conditions of Use: Please ask before quoting in print, and acknowledge the translation if you quote it!

In May and June 2020 I am transcribing and translating this text one or two paragraphs per week (paragraphs 3 and following just have summaries or rough drafts). If you want to see more, please support my work on patreon or paypal.me Changes are not currently being recorded, so refresh your browser!

The print edition has extensive notes in the margins about the manuscript, and below the text in Italian suggesting how to interpret specific clauses or similar passages in other texts. I have left those out of this edition.

XXVIIII. CAPITULARE DE BALESTARIS XXVIIII. Capitulary of the Crossbow-Makers
I. Iuro ad evangelia sancta Dei quod omnes ballistas quas laboravo vel laborare fecero, vendam vel vendi fatiam cum suo nomine(1) et dicam veritatem si erunt de cornibus stambicorum(2) vel de aliis cornibus, omnes pro suo nomine de quo sunt. et omnes ballistas quas fecero vel laborare fecero de cornibus stambicorum, non mittam nec mitti faciam in ipsis de aliis cornibus nisi de stanbicis. et si sciero quod aliquis de ista arte fecerit contra ordinem suprascriptum et non habeat factum hoc sacramentum, quam cicius potero iusticiariis manifestabo(3). 1: I swear on the sacred gospels of God that I will sell or have sold all crossbows which I have worked or have had worked with their proper name, and I shall speak truly whether they are of steinbock (alpine ibex) horn or of other horns, all for their own name from which they are. And all crossbows which I have made or have had worked of steinbock horn, I shall not set nor have set into them anything of other horns except of steinbocks. And if I should know that anyone else of this art has made something contrary to the above ordinance and has not made this sacrament, I shall make this known to the Justicars as soon as I am able.
II. Hec omnia attendam bona fide sine fraude, nisi remanserit per maiorem partem iusticiariorum. 2: I will pay attention to all these things in good faith without fraud, unless they should be discontinued by the greater part of the Justicars.
III. Item, ballista veterem non potest conciare si cornum fractum est; si lectum vero mittatur totum, et etiam si aliud lectum non mittatur, illa ballista nichil valet et non debeat conçari(6). 3rd item: an old crossbow cannot be repaired if the horn is broken: if the bed is really completely gone, and if also another bed cannot be gone, that crossbow is worth nothing and may not be repaired.
{start of page 172} IIII. Item, nullus magister sit ausus facere et ballista de cornum de beco, sed in tenet mittere potest. 4th item: no master shall be so bold as to make a crossbow of buck (beco: some kind of male cervid) horn, but/unless he is able to put in tenet (in tenure?)
V. Item, nulla ballista bastarda aliquis magister conçare potest. 5th item, no master shall be able to repair any bastard crossbow whatsoever.
VI. Item, si aliquis aportaverit ballistam occasione conçiandum et postea voluerit conçare, unusquisque ballistarus facere teneatur signum suum ⁜ super illud ballistam. 6th item: if anyone has brought in a crossbow for repair (conciare-ing), and afterwards wants it repaired, every single crossbow-maker shall be held to make his own sign ⁜ upon that crossbow.
VII. ‖Anno(3) Domini millesimo .CCCIIII., indicione tercia, die .XXIIII. februarii, tempore dominorum Marini Busenago, Phylipi {start of page 173} de Fontana et Andree Marcello iusticiariorum veterum, ordinatum fuit et firmatum per eosdem quod a modo aliquis balisterius non audeat vel presumat ponere vel poni facere aliquo modo vel ingenio aliquam clavem vel stapham de carevana in aliquo {start of page 174} balisto, sub pena soldorum .V. pro qualibet stapha et totidem pro clavi posita vel positis in balisto, contrafacienti. et nichilominus soluta pena teneatur magister dicti balisti ipsam clavem et stapham removere a balisto, retinendo ipsas in se, et alias bonas ponere ad suas expensas. VII. In the Year of the Lord 1304, third indiction, 24th day of February, in the time of Lords Justicars of Elders Marino Busenago, Philipo de Fontana and Andrea Marcello, it was ordained and established by them that no crossbow-maker shall dare or presume to put or have put in any way or nature any trigger or stirrup from a caravan in any arbalest, on pain of 5 soldi from the counterfeiter for each stirrup and the same for each trigger placed or ordered to be placed in any arbalest. And in addition, after having paid the penalty the master of the aforesaid arbalest shall be held to remove that same trigger and stirrup from the arbalest, keeping them for himself, and place other good ones at his own expense.
VIII. Item, quod aliquis magister balisterius non audeat ponere vel poni facere aliquam nucem in aliquo balisto que non habeat refollum reveditum in vivo nucis de subtus, sub pena soldorum .X. pro quolibet balisto in quo dictus ordo servatus non fuerit et pro qualibet vice contrafacienti. et nichilominus soluta pena teneatur dictus magister ipsam nucem extrahere et aliam bonam ponere ad suas expensas. 8th item: that no master crossbow-maker shall dare to put or have put any nut in any arbalest which does not have a sear fastened (refollum reveditum) in the quick of the nut from below, on pain of 10 soldi from the counterfitter for every arbalest in which the aforesaid ordinance has not been respected, and for every offense. And in addition to paying the penalty, the said master shall be held to take out that nut and put in another good one at his own expense.
VIIII. Insuper, quod quilibet predictorum debeat laborare sive plicare omnem fustem de balisto cum sepone et non cum aqua(2), {start of page 175} sub pena soldorum .XX. pro quolibet fusto sive arcu et pro qualibet vice contrafacienti. VIIII: In addition, that each of the aforesaid ought to work or fold every stave (fustis) of an arbalest with soap (sepone) and not with water, on pain of 20 soldi for each stave or bow and for every offense (vice) from the counterfitter.
X. Item, quod aliquis predictorum non debeat colorare aliquem tenerium de balisto sive mutare eum de suo colore proprio antequam ipsum vendat, sub pena soldorum .V. pro quolibet tenerio et pro qualibet vice contrafacienti; verum quod hoc licite facere possit postquam fuerit venditum, ad voluntatem emptoris. X. The aforesaid shall not colour any stock (tenerius) of an arbalest or change its proper colour
XI. Item, quod non debeat fieri per aliquem predictorum aliqua corda, nec ponere in balisto, nisi fuerit de spago comuni vel de tam bono vel meliori, et de canipo et non de lino, sub pena soldorum .V. pro qualibet corda et pro qualibet vice contrafacienti. XI. Strings shall be of common twine (spago comuni) or something at least as good, and of hemp not linen
XII. Preterea, quod quilibet magister debeat fecere suum signum proprium in balistis, tam in arcu quam in tenerio, prout signatum est ad camaram iusticiariorum, nec aliquis audeat contrafacere signum alicuius, sub pena soldorum .V. pro quolibet arcu et tenerio non signato(2). XII. Each master shall put his own sign on the crossbow, both on the bow (arcu) and the stock (tenerius)
XIII. ‖Item, quod aliquis predictorum non audeat ligare vel ligari facere aliquem arcum rotundum in aliquo tenerio nisi colaverit vel innervaverit ipsi arcui unum scanellum bene et diligenter, sub pena soldorum .V. pro quolibet arcu et pro qualibet vice contrafacienti. XIII. Item, that none of the aforesaid shall dare to find or have bound any round bow in any stock unless … (and then the language gets too hard to skim)
{start of page 176} XIIII. Insuper, non audeat aliquis predictorum innervare vel innervare facere aliquem arcum nisi fuerit de duobus vel tribus fustis, nec in testis vel in aliquo alio loco preter scanellum, nisi primo ipsum vendiderit, sub pena soldorum .X. pro quolibet arcu et pro qualibet vice contrafacienti; verum quod postquam venditum fuerit, innervari possit ad voluntatem ementis. XIIII. How to sinew (innervare) bows
XV. Item, quod nullus predictorum audeat vendere vel vendi facere aliquod tenerium sine traffitta posita in ipso tenerio, antequam balistum ligetur, sub pena soldorum .V. pro quolibet et pro qualibet vice contrafacienti. et quicumque de omnibus et singulis supradictorum accusaverit, habeat medietatem pene si per eius accusationem veritas cognoscetur. XV. None of the aforesaid shall sell a stock without a traffitta placed in it before the arbalest (sic) has been bound
XVI. Insuper, ut omnia et singula predictorum continue observentur, ordinaverunt domini supradicti quod debeat fieri in arte ista tres suprastantes boni et legales omni sancto Michaele mutandi; qui suprastantes sacramento teneantur temptare omnes stationes balisteriorum et balista eorum, tenerios, arcus, claves, staphas, nuces, et cordas, et omnia ad artem predictam pertinencia omni mensi semel ad minus, et plus si eis videbitur, et in eo capitulo in quo aliquem contrafecisse invenerint, penam ibi scriptam remoto {start of page 177} amore et odio accipiant, habentes ipsi suprastantes medietatem pene si per eius accusationem veritas cognoscetur. XVI. Parts of the balista (crossbow): tenerii (stocks/tillers), arcus (bows), claves (triggers? literally “nails” or “pins”), staphae (= Italian staffa “stirrup”), nuces (nuts), and cordae (strings)
XVII. even more rows row will go here there are 26 items XVII. yes they sure will when I have time there are many items

The “dummy maker’s mark” is called U+205C ⁜ DOTTED CROSS in Unicode. If you read Latin and are more used to classical texts, Du Cange’s entries for conciare 1 (also in TLIO under conciare), nihilominus … will be helpful.

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Author: The jupe-makers of Venice
Original Language: Latin
Place of Composition: Venice
Date of Composition: March 1219 (first two clauses) to 3 November 1313 (last clause L)
Source of Text: Giovanni Monticolo (ed.), I capitolari delle arti veneziane: sottoposte alla giustizia e poi alla giustizia vecchia dalle origini al MCCCXXX (Roma: Tipografo del Senato, 1896) pp. 23-54
Source of Translation: n/a
Conditions of Use: Please ask before quoting in print, and acknowledge the translation if you quote it!

XXII. Capitulare de Zupariis XXII. Capitulary of the Jupe-Makers
In nomine domini nostri Iesu Christi amen. nos omnes iusticarii, scilicet D. Pestello, M. Romano, An. [5] Marino, Guilelmus Marino et Iacobus Truno, qui constituti sumus per dominum nostrum Petrum Çianum inclitum Venetiarum ducem et eius consilium ad iusticiam moderandam, anno Domini millesimo ducentesimo nono decimo, mense marcii, indicione septima fecimus omnes magistros de zupis et de coopertoribus iurare, sicut [10] in subiecto caputulari continetur: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nullam vulputate volutpat mauris, id efficitur nunc facilisis et. Integer pulvinar risus nec gravida bibendum. Morbi efficitur elit vel odio dapibus rutrum. Sed eu tellus et quam fringilla ullamcorper malesuada ut dui. Mauris elit orci, iaculis a libero in, faucibus pellentesque odio.
I. Iuro supra sancta Dei evangelia quod omnes çubas et çubetos et coopertoria et alia opera que laborabo vel laborari fatiam {start of p. 24} et que in manibus meis et in mea potestate devenerint, tam Venetorum quam forinsecorum, bona fide sine fraude salvabo et salvari fatiam, tam drapum quam banbacinum et cendato; et si de ipsis incidero, abseque fraude commitenda incidam legaliter. [5] pecie vero omnes et banbacinum et cendato que remanserint, valentes a sex denariis supra, representabo illi vel illis cuius vel quorum fuerint aut michi duxerint vel presentaverint, et ei vel eis dabo et deliberabo sine ulla fraude si recipere voluerint. et nichil de banbatio neque de drapo michi dato ad laborandum [10] tollam nec tolli fatiam futive atque fraudulenter contra suprascriptum ordinem. et omnia opera que fecero ad vendendum tam de banbatio novo et veteri quam de stupa et peciis, vendam et fatiam vendi cum suo nomine secundum quod fuerint tam de banbatio novo et veteri quam de stupa et peciis, si inde interogates {start of p. 25} fuero vel non. et nullum forinsecum recipiam in mea conpagnia ad laborandum nisi prius fecerit similem sacramentum et fidelitatem domino nostro duci. et si sciero quod aliquis magister de opere predicto laboraverit in Venecias vel laborari fecerit [5] qui non fecerit hoc sacramentum, sine fraude manifestabo iusticiariis qui sunt vel erunt per tempora. item, nullam conpagnia vel raxam vel conspiracio contra aliquem non faciam ut si deramentum contra aliquem. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Proin efficitur lectus nibh, commodo congue lacus bibendum quis. Cras tristique nibh eu turpis iaculis, vitae blandit diam dictum. Nulla sollicitudin aliquet dui sed pellentesque. Pellentesque lobortis dictum laoreet. Suspendisse potenti. Nulla facilisi. Aliquam at risus tincidunt orci volutpat volutpat ac et turpis. In ac turpis eu odio euismod sollicitudin.
Nullam massa ipsum, sollicitudin eget nisl ac, pellentesque accumsan libero. Morbi egestas luctus tristique. Ut pharetra enim nec posuere posuere. Fusce dictum, velit at tempor auctor, magna lacus suscipit lectus, sed fringilla enim ex id neque. Ut pretium lorem ut tellus tristique tincidunt. Maecenas ac pellentesque orci. In eget auctor mi. Ut rhoncus neque nec erat cursus, a accumsan lorem laoreet. Integer quis tortor id enim eleifend imperdiet. Sed in purus in velit posuere scelerisque. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec molestie velit tincidunt efficitur pretium. Quisque vitae orci sit amet urna mollis sagittis vel a massa. Donec semper neque quam, nec pellentesque ex posuere aliquet. Vestibulum fermentum orci eget augue lacinia, a facilisis nisl consectetur. Morbi placerat sapien tellus, a tempus ligula ornare at. Praesent faucibus mollis dolor ut pharetra. Quisque porttitor magna eu suscipit consequat. Nunc lobortis.
Hec omnia et totum hoc quod dominus noster dux cum [10] maiori parte sui consilii vel maior pars iusticiarorum qui sunt vel erunt per tempora, michi addere vel minuerevoluerint, bona fide sine fraude attendere et observare debeam, nisi remanserit per dominum nostrum ducem et maiori partem sui consilii vel per maiorem partem iusticiarorum qui modo sunt vel erunt per [15] tempora. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse interdum, eros nec tincidunt ornare, mi nunc mollis dui, ac feugiat erat nibh eget risus. Phasellus faucibus, mauris a volutpat commodo, quam mauris pretium ipsum, et scelerisque dolor enim sit amet ligula. Morbi eget tempor ligula. Donec bibendum lorem quis urna rhoncus pretium. In nec imperdiet augue, nec pulvinar sapien. Morbi rutrum id orci tincidunt aliquet. Integer nec tempus velit, nec pellentesque sapien. Mauris congue pretium maximus. Fusce a turpis faucibus elit bibendum scelerisque. Morbi a felis aliquet, consequat sem in, placerat purus. Sed sed massa sed metus lacinia accumsan. Ut.
(p. 25) II. fines for violating the ordinance
III. organization and self-government of the art
(p. 28) IIII. No man or woman shall dare or presume to put new cloth with old in any work (laborerio), on pain of …
V. garçatura or pellamen with new or old cotton, new or old cultras or çupas
(p. 29) VI. That nobody shall date to work at night,or to beat cotton, on pain of a ban and more or less at the will of the lords justicars.
(p. 30) VII. not to work on holidays or Friday (die Veneris)
VIII. employment of apprentices or male or female workers
VIIII. (p. 31) Item, that no person, whether Venetian or foreign (forinseca), who makes çupellos or cultras with pieces, tow (stupa) and old cotton inside, shall dare to sell them in Venice, on pain of the king (rex) destroying them and a full ban and more or less at the will of the justicars.
X. hard to understand
(p. 32) XI. No person who makes çupellos for selling shall put old pieces inside
XII. No master, boy, or woman shall dare or presume to work the said art unless they have sworn.
XIII. Nobody of the said art shall dare or presume to make letters or bolletas for any foreigner for the sake of defrauding daçiiam of the commune of the Venetians, on pain of …
XIIII. Item, that from now on no person shall dare to put linen … under old cultra, on pain of …
XV. tonega (tonaca)
XVI. Not working vella
XXVIIII.: no-one of the art of jupery shall date to make or have made any work of colour dyed in asgodano rubeo (nasgodono)
XXXVI. no one of the art shall verberare (beat?) any cotton at night
(p. 51) XXXXIII. Everyone of the art ought to beat (batere) and have beaten all cotton which is put inside çupellos and good and lega, just like itis beaten (verberatur) in other trades. Nobody shall inplire ad feretum any çuba or suprasegna which they make for sale, on pain of …

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